Biochar: Soil Additive and Sorbent
About this Book
In recent years, biochar has been receiving increased research attention owing to its unique properties. Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product prepared from biomaterials through various heating methods. This book provides an updated overview on several aspects of biochar, including different methods of biochar production, factors influencing biochar production and properties, mechanism of biochar production, methods to examine the structure and composition of biochar, techniques to modify the biochar for various applications. Biochar is usually produced through pyrolysis, gasification, torrefaction, flash carbonization and hydrothermal carbonization. The key parameters controlling the property of biochar including the type of heating method, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type are discussed. Several types of feedstock has been proposed for biochar production and these include plant residues, wood chip, seaweeds, organic portion of municipal solid waste and animal manures. The physical and chemical properties of biochar play a major role in several applications such as agriculture, environmental remediation, catalyst/support, fuel cells and supercapacitors. Recent research indicated that it is possible to alter the properties of biochar to suit the applications with the aid of various physical and chemical agents. Thus, this book summarizes the advancements made in the field of biochar with special emphasis on agricultural applications and contaminant remediation.
Chapter 1 introduces the readers to the pyrolysis process and its important products.
Chapter 2 presents various techniques to produce biochar and the important factors influencing the properties of biochar. The mechanisms involved in production of biochar are discussed.
Chapter 3 examined the structure and composition of biochar. Various analytical methods used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the properties of biochar are evaluated.
Chapter 4 elucidates modification methods used to enhance the efficiency of biochar. Physical modification methods such as steam activation and gas purging; and chemical modification methods such as acid/base modification, functional group modification, and impregnation with mineral oxides are discussed in detail.
Chapter 5 consolidates application of biochar-based functional materials in various fields. Here, use of biochar as soil additive, bulking agent, sorbent, catalyst/support, in fuel cell and supercapacitors are discussed.
Last but not at least, Chapter 6 discusses scope and future directions of biochar research.